History of Olympic Games
Olympic Games, Olympics Games – the largest international complex sports competitions of our time, which are held every four years. The tradition that existed in ancient Greece at the end of the 19th century was revived by the French public figure Pierre de Coubertin . The Olympics, also known as the Summer Olympics, were held every four years, starting in 1896, with the exception of the years that fell on the world wars. In 1924, the Winter Olympics were established, which were originally held in the same year as the summer ones. However, since 1994, the time of the Winter Olympic Games has been shifted by two years relative to the time of the summer games.
Antique olympic games
The Olympic Games of Ancient Greece were a religious and sports festival held at Olympia. Information about the origin of the games has been lost, but several legends have been preserved that describe this event. The first documented celebration dates back to 776 BC. e., although it is known that the games were held before. A holy truce was declared at the time of the games, at that time it was impossible to wage war, although this was repeatedly violated.The Olympic Games substantially lost their importance with the advent of the Romans. After Christianity became the official religion, games began to be seen as a manifestation of paganism in 394 AD. e. they were banned by Emperor Theodosius I of .
Revival of the Olympic Idea
The Olympic idea even after the prohibition of ancient competitions did not disappear completely. For example, in England during the 17th century, “Olympic” competitions and competitions were repeatedly held. Later similar competitions were organized in France and Greece. Nevertheless, these were small events that were, at best, regional in nature. The first real predecessors of the modern Olympic Games are the Olympia, which were held regularly in the period 1859-1888. The idea of reviving the Olympic Games in Greece belonged to the poet Panagiotis Suzos , brought to life by the public figure Evangelis Zapas .
In 1766, as a result of archaeological excavations in Olympia, sports and temple structures were discovered. In 1875, archaeological research and excavations continued under German leadership. At that time, romantic-idealistic ideas about antiquity were in fashion in Europe. The desire to revive Olympic thinking and culture spread quite rapidly throughout Europe. The French baron Pierre de Coubertin (FR Pierre de Coubertin) said then: “Germany has unearthed what remains of ancient Olympia. Why can’t France restore old grandeur? ”
According to Coubertin, it was the poor physical condition of the French soldiers that became one of the reasons for the defeat of the French in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.At the same time, he wanted to overcome national egoism and make a contribution to the struggle for peace and international understanding. “Youth of the world” was to measure their strength in sports, and not on the battlefields. The revival of the Olympic Games seemed in his eyes the best decision to achieve both goals.
At a congress held June 16-23, 1894 at the Sorbonne (University of Paris), he presented his thoughts and ideas to the international public. On the last day of the congress (June 23), it was decided that the first Olympic Games of our time should be held in Athens in 1896, in Greece, the parent country of the Games. To organize the Games, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was founded. The first president of the Committee was the Greek Demetrius Vikelas , who was president until the end of the I Olympic Games in 1896. The Secretary General was Baron Pierre de Coubertin .
The first Games of our time were really successful. Despite the fact that only 241 athletes (14 countries) took part in the Games, the Games became the largest sporting event ever held since ancient Greece. Greek officials were so pleased that they put forward a proposal for the “eternal” holding of the Olympics in their homeland, in Greece. But the IOC introduced a rotation between different states so that every 4 years the Games would change the venue.
After the first success, the Olympic movement experienced the first crisis in its history. The 1900 Games in Paris (France) and the 1904 Games in St. Louis (Missouri, USA) were combined with World Exhibitions. Sports competitions lasted for months and almost did not enjoy the interest of the audience. Almost only American athletes participated in the Games in St. Louis, since it was very difficult to get from Europe through the ocean in those years for technical reasons.
At the 1906 Olympic Games in Athens (Greece), sports competitions and results again took first place. Although the IOC initially recognized and supported the holding of these “Interim Games” (just two years after the previous ones), now these Games are not recognized as Olympic. Some sports historians consider the 1906 Games to be the salvation of the Olympic idea, as they prevented the games from becoming “meaningless and unnecessary.”
Modern Olympic Games
According to the charter of the Olympics Games “… unite amateur athletes from all countries in fair and equal competitions. … ” . The color of the rings in the top row is blue for Europe, black for Africa, red for America, in the bottom row yellow for Asia, green for Australia. In addition to Olympic sports, the organizing committee has the right, at its option, to include in the program demonstration competitions in 1-2 sports that are not recognized by the IOC. In the same year as the Olympics, the Winter Olympic Games, which have their own numbering, have been held since 1924. Since 1994, the dates for the Winter Olympic Games have been shifted by 2 years relative to the summer. The venue of the Olympics is chosen by the IOC; the right to organize them is granted to the city, not the country. Duration no more than 15 days (winter games – no more than 10). Since 1994, the dates for the Winter Olympic Games have been shifted by 2 years relative to the summer. The venue of the Olympics is chosen by the IOC; the right to organize them is granted to the city, not the country. Duration no more than 15 days (winter games – no more than 10). Since 1994, the dates for the Winter Olympic Games have been shifted by 2 years relative to the summer. The venue of the Olympics is chosen by the IOC; the right to organize them is granted to the city, not the country. Duration no more than 15 days (winter games – no more than 10).
Among the traditional rituals of the Games:
* lighting the Olympic flame at the opening ceremony (the fire is ignited by sunlight in Olympia and delivered by the torch relay of athletes to the host city of the Games);* pronouncement by one of the outstanding athletes of the country in which the Olympics, the Olympic oath on behalf of all participants in the games;* pronouncement on behalf of the judges of the oath of impartial judging;* Presentation of winners and medalists of competitions;* raising the national flag and performing the national anthem in honor of the winners.
Since 1932, the host city has been building the “Olympic Village” – a complex of residential premises for the participants in the games. According to the charter, Games are competitions between individual athletes, and not between national teams. However, since 1908, the so-called. unofficial team event – determining the place occupied by teams by the number of medals received and points scored in the competition (points are awarded for the first 6 places in the system: 1st place – 7 points, 2nd – 5, 3rd – 4, 4 e – 3, 5th – 2, 6th – 1). The title of Olympic champion is the most honored and desired in the career of an athlete in those sports in which Olympic tournaments are held. Football is an exception, as the title of world champion in this sport is much more prestigious.